Communication Class – Academic Writing HelpStandard
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Why I Do the Things I DoStandard
What it Means for ALL the Things in Life
My Personality Type
Diplomats (INFJs, INFPs, ENFJs and ENFPs):
Intuitive and Feeling types – they are cooperative, empathic and imaginative, focusing on empathy, morality and cooperation.
Forming around 7% of the population, people with the ENFP personality type tend to be curious, idealistic, and often mystical. They seek meaning and are very interested in other people’s motives, seeing life as a big, complex puzzle where everything is connected. Not surprisingly, ENFPs tend to be very insightful and empathic individuals. This, plus their charm and social skills, often makes them very popular and influential.
On the other hand, this can also be a disadvantage as the ENFP is likely to worry about not being sufficiently original or spontaneous. If they are not careful, this personality trait can lower their self-esteem.
ENFP personalities are usually characterized by high levels of enthusiasm, especially when it comes to things that spark their imagination. In such cases, ENFPs can be very energetic and convincing; they are able to easily persuade other people to join their cause. Ironically, this trait can also turn against the ENFP , when they suddenly find themselves center stage, being seen as leaders and inspiring gurus by other people. ENFPs strive to be independent, so they do not always welcome such attention.
ENFP personalities are very emotional and sensitive, believing feelings are something everyone should take time to understand and express. However, this trait can also cause a lot of stress for them as ENFPs may often focus too much on other people’s motives and the possible meanings behind their actions. People with this personality type are sharp-eyed and intuitive, but they can make serious mistakes when they try to use their interpretation of other people’s emotions as a basis for their decisions.
ENFPs are also likely to have difficulties dealing with routine, administrative matters. They are more interested in freedom and inspiration than security and stability, and this attitude is usually clearly visible: an ENFP would rather try to come up with an interesting solution or an idea, no matter how difficult that is, than deal with simple yet boring tasks.
People with the ENFP personality type know how to relax, drawing on their imagination, enthusiasm, and people skills. For instance, they can be very serious and passionate about work during the day and then later let off steam at a wild party in a nightclub. This switch between the two modes can often be instantaneous, surprising even their closest friends.
Finally, ENFPs are non-conformists, following their own path and trusting their intuition. Their talents are numerous, but they all depend on the ENFP being given enough freedom. People with this personality type can quickly become impatient and dejected if they get stuck in a boring role where they are unable to freely express themselves. But when the ENFP finally finds their place in the world, their imagination, empathy, and courage are likely to produce incredible results.
There are so many potential ENFP careers that it is difficult to list everything in one short article. However, we hope that the details that follow will help some ENFPs in their search for the ideal job. This is one of the most universal personality types, jack-of-all-trades and master-of-many . As long as the ENFP does not get into a career path that is definitely unsuitable for them, they are likely to do well in any role.
To begin with, ENFPs have excellent social skills and are astonishingly perceptive. This personality type is unsurpassed when it comes to networking and finding out what makes people tick, which is a great skill in any career. Furthermore, ENFPs have a unique ability to communicate with others on their own level, which allows them to create strong and lasting relationships. Due to these traits, typical ENFP careers involve a lot of personal interaction and require good people skills. For instance, ENFPs can be excellent psychologists, teachers, counselors, diplomats, or politicians .
Next, ENFPs tend to be very talented, energetic, and future-oriented. They can easily compete with Analysts (NT) in the career field when it comes to seeing the bigger picture or finding the underlying principle. Furthermore, despite being a Feeling (F) type, ENFPs excel at using their logic, forming a very potent combination of intuition and rationality. They can focus on the main goal and then put together the plan to achieve that goal. There are many potential careers that make good use of these ENFP traits: people with this personality type tend to be brilliant system analysts, scientists, engineers, and entrepreneurs . This is where ENFPs can truly shine. For instance, scientists and engineers with great networking and people skills are extraordinarily rare. The same can be said about other ENFP careers, but this is an excellent example of how effective ENFPs can be in certain jobs.
Finally, people with this personality type have excellent communication skills, both written and verbal. ENFPs can also be truly inspiring leaders in many careers, but they do not try to control or enjoy controlling other people. However, there are several weak spots in their armor. First, ENFPs need to feel appreciated by their colleagues and superiors; lacking this can threaten their emotional stability in certain cases or careers. Second, ENFPs get bored quite quickly and consequently tend to jump from project to project looking for some new and exciting ideas. Third, ENFPs dislike dealing with monotonous tasks and are likely to do everything they can to avoid them. These traits may hinder their progress in certain careers; however, some ENFPs turn them into strengths. For instance, ENFPs do very well in careers such as writing, journalism, acting, or TV reporting ; such jobs can ensure that the ENFP never runs out of interesting ideas, and they have a big audience to keep them going for a long time.
If you are working for a large company, you probably already know an ENFP colleague, manager, or subordinate. People with the ENFP personality type seem to be everywhere, even though they make up only around 5 percent of the population. Furthermore, they can easily get along with nearly all other personality types, which makes them ideal coworkers. So what are ENFPs like in the workplace?
*Warm, tolerant, and genuine
*Very good at sensing their colleagues’ motives
*Sensitive and supportive
*Able to relax and have fun, cheering up their colleagues without much effort
*Sincerely interested in other people
*Strive for win-win situations at all times
*Instinctively know what motivates their subordinates
*May have difficulties punishing misbehaving subordinates
*Able to inspire and motivate other people
*Open-minded, dislike bureaucracy and restrictive rules
*Highly analytical, especially when it comes to understanding another person’s perspective
*Creative and original
*May get stressed easily
*Loyal and devoted
*Enjoy exploring new areas and learning new things
*Very independent, loathe being micromanaged
*May have difficulties focusing on one particular project
Strengths & Weaknesses:
*Observant. ENFP personalities believe that there are no irrelevant details or actions. They try to notice everything, seeing all events as part of a big, mysterious puzzle called life.
*Very popular and friendly. ENFP are altruistic and cooperative, doing their best to be empathic and friendly in every situation. They can get along with nearly everyone and usually have a large circle of friends and acquaintances.
*Energetic and enthusiastic. ENFP are always eager to share their ideas with other people and get their opinions in return. Their enthusiasm is contagious and very inspiring at the same time.
*Know how to relax. People with this personality type know how to switch off and have fun, simply experiencing life and everything it has to offer. Their wild bursts of enthusiastic energy can often surprise even their closest friends.
*Excellent communicators. ENFPs tend to have great people skills, and they instantly know how to present their ideas in a convincing way. They can handle both small talk and deep, meaningful conversations, although the ENFP’s definition of small talk may be somewhat unusual—they will steer the conversation toward ideas rather than weather, gossip, etc.
*Curious. ENFPs are very imaginative and open-minded. They enjoy trying out new things and do not hesitate to go outside their comfort zone if necessary.
*Highly emotional. ENFP personalities tend to have very intense emotions, seeing them as an inseparable part of their identity. This may often cause the ENFP to react strongly to criticism, conflicts, or tension.
*May have poor practical skills. ENFPs are brilliant when it comes to solving problems, creating processes, or initiating projects (especially if they involve other people). However, they are likely to find it difficult to follow through and deal with the practical, administrative side of things.
*Overthink things. ENFPs always look for hidden motives and tend to overthink even the simplest things, constantly asking themselves why someone did what they did and what that might mean.
*Get stressed easily. ENFPs are very sensitive and care deeply about other people’s feelings. This can cause them a lot of stress sometimes: people often look to them for guidance and encouragement, and the ENFP cannot always say “yes.”
*Find it difficult to focus. People with the ENFP personality type lose interest quickly if their project shifts toward routine, administrative matters. They may not be able to stop their mind from wandering off.
*Very independent. ENFPs loathe being micromanaged or restrained by rules and guidelines. They want to be seen as highly independent individuals, masters of their own fates.
ENFP personalities are likely to be cheerful, sincere, and open-minded friends. They rarely have any difficulties understanding other personality types and interacting with them in their “language.” This is a very rare and valuable trait. Even though some of the ENFP’s friends may be unable to reciprocate, they will certainly recognize and appreciate the ENFP’s efforts. People with this personality type are usually able to draw even the most reserved friend out of their shell.
Because ENFPs are so intuitive, they rarely have any difficulties finding out what drives and inspires their friends. ENFPs’ ’ enthusiasm and warmth can be very infectious as they stem from the pure idealism this personality type is known for. However, ENFPs should make sure that their attention does not get tiring—not every friend can cope with the never-ending stream of ideas and topics that an ENFP’s mind can generate.
ENFP friends tend to be very caring and supportive, but they also need to make sure that their own needs are being met. People with this personality type may sometimes get too deeply involved in the lives of their friends, forgetting to pay enough attention to themselves. Furthermore, ENFPs also tend to harbor unrealistic expectations when it comes to friendships. This can potentially lead to stress and disappointment once the ENFP realizes that their friends are not as flawless or dedicated as they would like them to be.
Generally, ENFP friends are likely to be quite idealistic and sensitive. This sensitivity enables them to connect with their friends and acquaintances very easily, but it also makes the ENFP very vulnerable to criticism. This is why ENFPs tend to avoid people with strongly expressed Thinking (T) or Judging (J) traits. Those personality types are likely to have strong opinions about a variety of topics, and the ENFP is likely to feel quite uncomfortable arguing with them.
That being said, ENFPs are fascinated by mysteries and will do their best to understand the other person if they sense that there is some substance beneath the surface. This is one of the reasons why ENFPs tend to form extremely strong friendships with Diplomat (NF) and Analyst (NT) types.
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FIND OUT YOUR PERSONALITY & WHAT IT MEANS FOR YOUR LIFE
Meet Bob – With Bob, You’re Never “Bowling Alone”Standard
A Startup Media Case Study by Robin Spielberger
Robert Putnam surveyed the decline of social capital in the United States in his 1995 essay entitled Bowling Alone: America’s Declining Social Capital and notes the aggregate loss in membership of many existing civic organizations. He points out that the act of individual membership has not migrated to other, succeeding organizations and to illustrate why this decline of citizen membership in social organizations is problematic to democracy, Putnam uses bowling as an example. He noticed that bowling leagues had declined significantly in the last few decades of the twentieth century. However, people still bowled, only now as individuals and informal groups, and not as part of a league. If people bowl alone, they aren’t participating in social interactions and civic discussions, which might occur in a league environment. Putnam looks to the technological “individualizing” of our leisure time via television and Internet as possible changes in American behavior that have led to this decline of social interaction.
The average American over the age of 2 spends more than 34 hours a week watching live television, says a 2012 Nielsen report — plus another three to six hours watching recorded programs. The survey, taken during the first quarter of 2012, says average weekly viewing time hasn’t changed much over the last four years but the biggest change is that the time spent watching shows from DVRs has doubled, and more of us — 36 million, more or less — are watching video on our smartphones.
Concurrent with surveys of years past, Nielson concluded Americans watch more TV as we get older, with children age 2-11 watching an average of 24 hours of TV a week, or 31/2 hours a day. Teens, age 12-17, spend more than 22 hours each week engrossed in television and 18-24 year olds spend more than 25 hours per week watching their favorite shows. After that, the numbers rise steadily until people over the age of 65 average 48 hours a week, or nearly seven hours a day glued to the tube.
Meanwhile, the average person spends approximately five hours a week trolling the Internet and those ages 35-49, spend more than seven. Certainly, this trend of solitary entertainment has led to less social interaction among family, friends, and communities. Who has time for it, after all?
Dov Moran, famed for inventing the USB flash drive, is at work on the next consumer revolution – this time in television – with his new company Meet-Bob.
Bob, a unique Android-based TV stick that enables families to communicate, share content, interact and play, all via the TV – no matter where each member may be physically located – was launched at the International Consumer Electronics Show (CES), a global consumer electronics and consumer technology trade show, in Las Vegas earlier this year. Bob promises to turn every television into a smart TV simply by connecting to an HDMI port.
This new HDMI TV stick – called Bob and developed by Meet-Bob Ltd. – is designed to provide families with intuitive and exciting interactive communication options. It easily turns any TV into a content and communications mega-center, enabling family members to watch TV shows, movies or videos together; easily share favorite content and special moments with each other; keep-in-touch, using a webcam, and play games with one another – even if they are on different sides of the world. Bob can be easily carried anywhere, making any TV part of the family network. With Bob, you are no longer “bowling alone.”
Bob makes user experience fully personalized by offering relevant features and content specifically created for each user profile. Every family member has a password-protected profile through the service, complete with a personal login and the interface can be controlled with a variety of devices, including a remote control and an Xbox– type controller.
Children in the family will have access to specific features such as Video On Demand, live channels, games, apps, websites and educational books that have been parent approved. Parents will also have the ability to schedule viewing times and limit their children’s communication to only other family members.
The product name and slogan – “The stick that makes the family stick together” – were both chosen with the aim of making the device a part of the family. Lotan Levkowitz, vice president of Meet-Bob business development, explained to Todd Bishop at the CES in Las Vegas for his article in Geekwire, that the name is meant to evoke a friendly uncle who always wants to bring everyone together for a family picture or activities.
Moran and his team believe Meet-Bob will revolutionize TV watching, said Sigalit Klimovsky, CEO of the Meet-Bob project in a January 2014 article by David Shamah of The Times of Israel’s Start-Up Israel section. “It’s a device to bring families together. Technology was supposed to get us closer; it has opened the boundaries and has become a commodity enabling us to communicate easily with anyone, anywhere. But while we connect more with a bigger group of people, we interact and communicate less with the people we care about – our family.” Bob, Klimovsky said, will harness interactive technology to bring people, especially families, closer together.
Inbal Orpaz states, “the idea is simple,” in her February 11, 2014 article in Haaretz, which named Meet-Bob the “Start-up of the Week. “Enable the TV to host all the digital content that’s important to one’s family, not just content that comes “packaged” via cable or satellite, Orpaz said. “The system allows families to communicate, share content, interact and play via the TV, regardless of where each member may be located.”
Meet-Bob will not supply the television content itself; rather it will be a platform used by service providers and retail chains. This creates an exciting new opportunity for content providers, brands retailers, or any companies interested in extending their reach to the family living room, by providing a refreshing new family-oriented product offering unique marketing opportunities. The Bob stick enables the efficient delivery of content, the promotion of products and services, and micro-targeted campaigns directly to the family’s TV. You can distribute your own media content, such as Video On Demand, live channels, games, and books to any television set, as well as use the TV as an advertising platform, where you can launch micro targeted campaigns and efficiently promote products and services through family ties. Bob also gives you the tools to develop any type of interactive application and enable it at just the right time.
“Bob’s social nature and its unique interactive capabilities, allow it to target families in an entirely new way, strengthening brand loyalty, increasing viewer engagement and opening new revenue opportunities,” according to an article in Gadget, an online tech magazine.
Orpaz gives another advantage for retailer and content providers but harkens a potential warning to those concerned about their privacy by noting that Bob “opens up new television advertising possibilities, thanks to the information that it can gather about viewers (gender, age, etc.), if users connect via Facebook, for example.”
The Android-based product will be sold as a kit that includes the Bob stick and a remote, however it will also be possible to control the television and access content via a smartphone or tablet application. Each stick contains a Wi-Fi antenna making it possible to put Web content on television. In addition to a retail version, Meet-Bob, Ltd, is seeking partners who will use the device to monetize content (like sporting events, live TV), offer interactive applications for users, develop micro-targeted TV ad campaigns for specific segments of the Meet-Bob user community, and so on
At first glance, Bob looks a lot like Google’s Chromecast, which came to market last year and gives users the ability to stream videos from computers, or from YouTube and other services, to television sets. However, Bob is much more, said company spokesperson Iris Abramovich to Shamah. “Chromecast is just a video streamer, but Meet Bob is much more – actually a social and interactivity device, letting users communicate and participate with each other.”
Moran’s Meet-Bob, Ltd, is an extremely new company founded late last year. Comigo, Meet-Bob’s sister company, also founded by Moran, expands the TV experience by extending viewing across all types of handheld devices. Moran serves as CEO of Meet-Bob, with four more employees joining its team from Comigo.
Bob Promo Video:
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FOX – Media Industry’s Frontrunner Despite DisruptionStandard
A Traditional Media Case Study by Robin Spielberger
After years of cursing the ad-skipping devil machine known as the DVR and losing a multi-million dollar lawsuit against Dish Network’s ad-skipping Hopper and new Sling technology, at least one broadcast network finally decided that resistance is futile.
Fox hyped the 2013 premiere of Kevin Bacon’s serial-killer thriller series, “The Following,” with commercial advertisements featuring announcer’s bellowing “Set your DVR now!” in addition to mentioning the show’s live air date. The same sort of reminder for the show can also be found in the network’s print and bus ads, as well as on billboards. However, this might not seem all that groundbreaking to the viewers because DVRs have been a common technology featured in American homes for years.
Leichtman Research Group‘s 2012 survey of 1,300 households found that 52 percent of
the ones that have pay-TV service also have a DVR. That translates to about 45 percent of all households and is up from 13.5 percent of all households surveyed five years earlier by Nielsen.
But Fox’s outright lack of resistance to DVR technology really is sort of radical: Networks really want you to watch their shows live, and until recently, they’ve been reluctant to do anything that might encourage delayed viewing, much less encourage it.
The Fox Broadcasting Company, commonly referred to as Fox, is an American commercial broadcasting television network, owned by the Fox Entertainment Group, a division of 21st Century Fox. Launched in 1986 as a fourth television network, Fox became the highest-rated broadcast network in the 18–49 demographic from 2004 to 2012 and in the 2007–08 season was the United States’ most-watched television network.
When Fox introduced American Idol in the summer of 2002, the average American household had 102 television channels, compared to a whopping 181 channels ten years later. Other developments in the media landscape, such as the growth of DVRs and Video on Demand services, the development of YouTube and other sources of streaming video and audio, the emergence of new venues for original series, and the massive growth of mobile technology and social media have had an impact on the television industry.
An article at the Hollywood Reporter argued that the television industry needs a “Steve Jobs – like visionary and needs it soon.” While television networks have been slowly adapting to the changes in viewer behavior, they have not been considered particularly viewer friendly.
While the film industry continues to see profound changes in the way movies are produced, distributed and monetized, the television industry is experiencing its own major shifts. Viewers have been drifting away from viewing television in real time in favor of recording things on their DVRs and “hopping” through the commercials, or jumping on the cord-cutting bandwagon and consuming series television entirely online or through new technologies such as Roku or AppleTV.
Traditional Nielsen television ratings no longer portray a complete representation of the audience for a program, cable channels have caught up with the big networks and more and more outlets for original series (like Netflix, DirecTV and Amazon) are materializing with desirous offerings, tantamount to what’s being broadcast over traditional airwaves.
Joe Earley, the network poured over the ratings for its new fall shows and one trend stuck out in a big way: almost one-third of all viewers who watched Fox Tuesday night sitcoms did so via DVR, and because those viewers weren’t just sitting back and watching whatever show was up next, other new sitcoms on the Fox lineup didn’t exist. Fox executives thought people weren’t rejecting these other shows but instead were just not watching them. “We began talking about how we might be in a new world where we had to tell people to set their DVRs,” Earley told Vulture in a January 2013 interview with Josef Adalian.
Most television networks use Nielsen‘s Live Plus service to track viewer ratings. Live Plus depicts who watched shows on their DVRs within different time frames. Generally, it tracks three major categories: Live-Plus-Same-Day, Live-Plus-Three and Live-Plus-Seven, with each one tracking a broader time frame. Live-Plus-Same-Day looks not only at who was watching when the show aired, but measure a program’s DVR viewing until 3:00am local time, that night. Live-Plus-Three and Live-Plus-Seven track who watched within three, and seven days of the original airing, respectively, and although the Live-Plus-Seven ratings are the closest thing to a “true popularity,” from Nielsen, they’re not available until three weeks after the show originally aired.
When Nielsen first rolled out its Live Plus service, network executives were uncertain, but it’s become an industry standard. These Live Plus ratings can make a big difference when a large portion of a show’s fans is watching on their DVRs. For more information about Nielsen‘s television ratings, click here, and to hear it directly from the horse’s mouth, click here.
Now, armed with Nielsen’s “special DVR data,” television executives are trumpeting the big viewership gains their shows are seeing up to a week after original air dates. This DVR data has become an increasingly important part of the calculations as each network decides which new fall shows to keep, and which to axe.
Rather than begin blanketing its airwaves and commercials with “Love Your DVR” PSAs, Fox executives decided to experiment using “The Following” as a guinea pig. Their submission to rampant DVR use by American households paid off, with the freshman thriller jumping 34 percent in the wake of the premiere in 2013. “We want people to be there from the beginning of the series,” Earley explained in his interview with Adalian, of Vulture. “We don’t necessarily want to encourage people to delay viewing. But we also don’t want them to miss it.”
“Sleepy Hollow,” Fox’s fall 2014 millennial spin on Washington Irving’s classic tale (for full text, click here), saw a huge impact on viewership once the DVR viewers were added to the mix. The premiere audience rose from a moderate 8.6 million to a vigorous 13.5 million viewers.
Fox was the first broadcast network to integrate DVR messaging into a promotional campaign for a new television series, but it appears to have become more common as time-shifting continues to impact how we watch “our stories.”
Advertising and DVR message integration isn’t the only way in which Fox is dealing with the disruption of the “glory days” of media conglomerate’s business practices and audience viewership ratings. FX President John Landgraf and Fox Chairman of Entertainment Kevin Reilly, are looking at ways to modify their networks, both owned by Fox Broadcasting Company, for a changing media landscape.
Landgraf, who is touted as one of the smartest executives in television, by Chief TV Critic Tim Goodman (@BastardMachine) of the Hollywood Reporter, observed that 2013 was a year in which cable series like AMC‘s “The Walking Dead,” FX‘s “Sons of Anarchy” and A&E‘s “Duck Dynasty” were in the 20 most watched shows, and that scripted series, were particularly exploding.
“In 2002 when we launched ‘The Shield,’ there were 33 scripted dramas or comedies on basic and premium cable,” Landgraf told Alison Willmore (@alisonwillmore) TV Editor at IndieWire during the Winter 2014 Television Critics Association Press Tour. “This year there will be about 180. That is over a 500% increase. And it doesn’t account for the fact that Internet delivered TV services like Netflix, Amazon Prime and Hulu Plus are now rolling out their own original series.” However, Landgraf doesn’t see an increase in series competition as FX’s biggest challenge – ”Somehow our shows seem to keep hitting all time highs every year.”
Rather, the chief obstacle he sees is that as viewing habits change, the networks are experiencing a huge loss of advertising revenue. For example, FX’s original series, “Sons of Anarchy” season premiere earned over five million adult viewers ages 18 to 49, but only two million of those were watching it live and only three million watched the commercials. FX’s response to this disruption has been to create an On Demand streaming service called FXNow, but also to produce more of their original programming.
Landgraf argued that television series are no longer “a disposable medium” in which the shows are made predominantly for the viewers that watch it in real time. ”Now I think we’re making shows for posterity,” he told Indiewire.
“That’s the thing that’s most exciting to me about television,” Landgraf expounded, “is that now television seems like a medium that has a long life. Therefore, it’s worth making things that not only galvanize an audience the night they air, but might be useful to someone 15 or 20 years later. And, of course, we own most of our programming, so we’re benefiting from both those revenue streams.” In addition, he noted that “the number of times when there were challenges over here on the ad sales front, the ownership of content has bailed us out. So it’s a nice thing, actually, to have some sort of more certain long tail revenue that sort of undergirds a more volatile thing like advertising sales.”
One of the ways Fox is dealing with the changing realities of the TV landscape is by bypassing the traditional pilot season, according to Kevin Reilly, Fox’s Chairman of Entertainment. Networks normally take pitches for new television shows in the early summer, order scripts in the early fall, and pilots in January. However, most of these pilots never get any closer to becoming a new series September or January.
“The broadcast, development, and scheduling system was built for a different era,” Reilly explained to Willmore of Indiewire, calling it “highly inefficient” to take place on a randomly compressed period and rigid schedule. He noted that cable networks have “a lot of flexibility in when the shows can go on” and that they “are able to course correct creatively and reshoot and recast.”
Fox has begun ordering multiple series throughout the year and at any given point are in some stage of production on at least 9 separate projects. Reilly believes this change will be “more talent friendly” and will allow more year-round programming and more flexible season lengths, making Fox comparable to the cable networks. “There shouldn’t be a set order pattern,” he said. “There shouldn’t be a set time when we launch things. There are thousands of original shows competing for attention right now — we just can’t do it all at once.”
Fox will begin its new scheduling system this year by rolling out 12-episode miniseries “24: Live Another Day” in May, when series are historically winding down. It will also begin slating some of its new series to begin next summer, instead of in the fall. Reilly noted that they have been starting shows earlier in the year in order to give the shows more room to rework potential issues. “It’s not a big story when cable rolls back a premiere date,” he explained to Indiewire. “There’s barely an HBO show that doesn’t reshoot half of their pilot every time, and no one throws their arms up about that. That’s how you make things great. We want to have that same maneuvering ability.”
Fox’s aforementioned surprise hit of fall 2013, “Sleepy Hollow,” was a 13-episode season, and they’re not currently looking to change the number of episodes ordered for its second season. “I think for most shows and dramas in this day and age, it’s better for the audiences to focus and to do shorter orders,” Reilly said. “Many dramas are just better creatively on a shorter-order pattern.” However, this year’s change to the scheduling system means, Fox will be starting next year’s production of “Sleepy Hollow” in March and will be months ahead of any other network, according to Reilly.
Fox Broadcasting Company has also caused the media landscape some disruption of its own by being one of the first networks to honestly address the issue of diversity in television programming. Fox initially began talking about diversity as a business imperative three years ago; shifting the conversation to the need for TV programming that reflects the multicultural reality of today’s world to keep younger viewers. It has since held annual conferences on diversity, telling top show producers that their casts and crew had to feature more people of color. The Deadline Hollywood blog reported on the 2013 event, held this past October for more than 150 people including representatives from the top talent agencies, Def Jam Recordings co-founder Russell Simmons, and top executives from several Fox television, film and business divisions.
Television viewers are more likely to watch shows that employ racially diverse casts and writers, according to a study done at UCLA’s Ralph J. Bunche Center for African American Studies. The study is the first in a series of analyses that will be done for the center’s Hollywood Advancement Project. The project will track over time whether the TV-and-film industry is “employing diverse groups of lead actors, writers, directors, producers and talent agents, and it will identify best practices for widening the pipeline for underrepresented groups,” according to its website.
In an analysis of more than 1,000 television shows that aired on 67 cable and broadcast networks during the 2011–12 season, UCLA researchers studying racial diversity in the entertainment industry found that more viewers were drawn to shows with ethnically diverse lead cast members and writers, while shows reflecting less diversity in their credits attracted smaller audiences.
“Diversity is the new ka-ching. “Not only are you going to have more chances of a show being made here, more chances of a show being a success on TV, more chances of making it into syndication, more chances of a show selling globally and making you millions of dollars, but you are going to bring more viewers to our air and keep us in business,” Fox Broadcasting COO Joe Earley announced to the “Seizing Opportunities” diversity event guests at Zanuck Theater on the Fox lot in 2013.
“Fox has managed to quietly introduce some of the most well-rounded roles for black men in the last decade—and this year’s slate of new shows goes even further. Outside of Shonda Rhimes’ deliberately diverse casting on ABC, Fox is the least whitewashed broadcast network of the four heavyweight media giants, and it hasn’t stopped there,” wrote Sonia Saraiya (@soniasaraiya), Assistant TV Club Editor for the A.V. Club blog, in a November 2013 article.
Fox’s new revolutionarily diverse casting work has created some of the strongest and most refined roles for men and women of color in television, and has helped to produce critically acclaimed shows that are garnering significant viewership and accolades for their focus on authenticity and complex character.
TV Critic Eric Deggans reports in the NPR blog CodeSwitch that Fox’s openly acknowledged business decision to hire more diverse casts has not only helped redefine the roles of black women on a television series, but has helped create new storylines with fresh perspectives, as in the case of Fox’s “Sleepy Hollow.”
“When the show featured a storyline centered on Mills’ sister, we got to see two black women in an action/adventure setting, fighting the bad guys instead of waiting to be rescued or seduced,” Deggans wrote in his November 2013 article for CodeSwitch. “It was exactly the kind of diverse casting I had been waiting for since 1999, when the issue hit a crisis point as the broadcast networks offered a fall slate of new TV shows without a single character of color.”
“Sleepy Hollow’s” supernatural drama, complete with a Four Horseman of the Apocalypse crime fighting plot, is anchored by the character of Abbie Mills. A strong, young female police officer, played by an up-and-coming African-American actor, Nicole Beharie, the character gets to kick down doors, carry her trusty sidearm, and play a skeptical but smart lead role.
Deggans added that “an upcoming episode will find the duo facing the legacy of slavery — a storyline that a more old-fashioned network series might have glossed over now has a new twist with an African-American co-lead.”
Fox Broadcasting Company’s recognition of the shift in viewer’s desire towards more racially diverse casts and the need for more authentically diverse roles in television programming is in part because of its newly created Audience Strategy division. According to its website, this division of the Fox Group “develops and implements transformative strategies to catalyze a cultural shift in the industry, embracing a multi-pronged approach of working from the inside-out to drive behavioral change and outside-in to advocate for diverse perspectives, and to engage all audiences in our multicultural world.”
The Fox Writers Intensive, a highly selective writer’s initiative held at the Fox Studios in Los Angeles, CA, from January 2014 through May 2014, is just one of the many strategies Fox is employing to help maintain its multicultural perspective. The Intensive is designed to introduce experienced writers with unique voices, backgrounds, life, and professional experiences that reflect the diverse perspectives of the Fox audiences to a wide range of Fox showrunners, writers, directors, screenwriters and creative executives. “These collective individuals work with the selected writers in a series of master classes to build on both their general craft and further their skillsets in the business of writing for television, feature films and digital content, according to the Fox Writer’s Intensive FAQ on its website.
Technology never remains static for long and often moves in unexpected ways, as we’ve seen in the television and news industries. This case study addressed some of the ways that Fox has modified its schedules, strategies, and behaviors due to the variety of transformations broadcast has gone through in the past decade with satellite, cable and on-demand irrevocably altering our viewing habits.
However, more recently mobile is starting to transform the face of broadcast and the on-demand model that we have quickly become accustomed to will soon to be complemented with “on-the-go” and “interactive” models, enabled by the ever-increasing sophistication of mobile solutions. With the number of mobile-connected devices soon due to exceed the number of people on earth, broadcasters must respond to even more changes in viewing habits to meet consumers’ expectations of experiencing a more engaging, interactive and tailored broadcast experience.
It will be interesting to see what new techniques Fox will employ in order to continue to adapt in the continuously changing media landscape and to any new disruptions caused by the extreme growth of new mobile technologies.